Kanon und Gigue in D-Dur, Originaltitel Canon a 3 Violini con Basso continuo, ist ein Werk des Nürnberger Barockkomponisten Johann Pachelbel (–). Johann Pachelbel war ein deutscher Komponist des Barock. Er wirkte als Organist unter anderem in Wien, Eisenach, Erfurt, Stuttgart, Gotha und ab an der Sebalduskirche in Nürnberg. Pachelbel, Johann. Komponist, Organist, ~ Nürnberg, †
Pachelbel, JohannPortrait. Organist und Komponist. Johann Pachelbel wurde am 1. September in Nürnberg getauft. Seine Eltern waren der Weinhändler Johann (Hans). Johann Pachelbel ist als Schöpfer von Orgelwerken, aber auch von Kantaten und Motetten sowie von Kammermusik hervorgetreten. Er wurde in Nürnberg. Pachelbel, Johann. Komponist, Organist, ~ Nürnberg, †
Pachebel Navigation menu VideoThe Best of Pachelbel. 1 Hour of Top Classical Baroque Music. HQ Recording Canon In D The Pachelbel “Canon” is an easy and tasteful answer to that; you’re not violating the musical fabric so much by coming to a conclusion too early.” And whether intended or not, there’s symbolism to. Johann Pachelbel (baptised 1 September – buried 9 March ) was a German composer, organist, and teacher who brought the south German organ schools to their peak. Johann Pachelbel was born in Nuremberg, Germany. He was born in August of and is one of the most important composers of the Baroque music era. Not only was he a brilliant child that excelled in academics, but he was also a gifted organist. He studied music in his hometown and spent time in the great city of Vienna, Austria. Johann Pachelbel, (baptized September 1, , Nürnberg [Germany]—died March 3, , Nürnberg), German composer known for his works for organ and one of the great organ masters of the generation before Johann Sebastian Bach. Pachelbel studied music at Altdorf and Regensburg and held posts as organist in Vienna, Stuttgart, and other cities. Love it or hate it, Pachelbel’s Canon in D is one of the most famous pieces of classical music of all time, but the facts behind the composition aren’t as well known. Classic FM busts the myths behind this enduring work.
Aside from attending regular school, Pachelbel also had two music teachers- Heinrich Schwemmer for teaching him about the fundamentals and principles of music and George Kaspar Wecker for training him how to compose and how to play the organ.
Throughout his life, Pachelbel served as a respected organist in various capacities. His long illustrious career started when he received a scholarship to enrolled at Gymnasium Poeticum at Regensburg on a scholarship.
He worked as a court organist under Daniel Eberlin in Eisenach, in a Protestant church in Erfurt, and so much more. In Pachelbel got married to Barbara Gabler but she and his infant child died in a plague that struck his town in Although he suffered this tragedy, Pachelbel bounced back soon after and remarried Judith Drommer in ; they consequently had seven children.
One of these seven children would be the organist, harpsichordist, composer and Wilhelm Hieronymus Pachelbel, who was born Although he produced a lot of other amazing works, Pachelbel is most recognized now for his Canon in D major.
Unlike Musical Thoughts of Death which was done earlier, Musical Delight was actually quite enjoyable. Although it does have slight tinges of melancholy, which is characteristic of the Baroque period.
Overall, it is this delicate balance that is so beautiful about the piece. Pachelbel often composed his music on papers and personal journals.
As such, he published very few of his works because back then you had to print using copper engraving, which was quite expensive at that time. The copper engraving was necessary because it appealed to audiences but Pachelbel simply could not afford it, which explains why most of his artwork and compositions are lost.
Pachelbel has close ties to the Bach family, and his style of music played an instrumental role in influencing and enriching that of Johann Sebastian Bach indirectly.
Christophe passed down everything that he had been taught by Pachelbel to his younger brother Johann Sebastian Bach, which is why it is said that Pachelbel influenced JS Bach heavily albeit indirectly.
Pachelbel spent a large portion of his life playing for churches across Germany and Vienna. As such, he composed most of his music for worship services for both Catholic and Protestant churches.
For a closer look at his style, have a listen to the Chaconne in F minor, the Toccata in E minor for organ, and his set of variations, Hexachordum Apollinis.
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Also composed in the final years were Italian-influenced concertato Vespers and a set of more than ninety Magnificat fugues.
Johann Pachelbel died at the age of 52, in early March , and was buried on 9 March; Mattheson cites either 3 March or 7 March as the death date, yet it is unlikely that the corpse was allowed to linger unburied as long as six days.
Contemporary custom was to bury the dead on the third or fourth post-mortem day; so, either 6 or 7 March is a likelier death date. Rochus Cemetery.
One of the last middle Baroque composers, Pachelbel did not have any considerable influence on most of the famous late Baroque composers, such as George Frideric Handel , Domenico Scarlatti or Georg Philipp Telemann.
However, he did influence Johann Sebastian Bach indirectly; the young Johann Sebastian was tutored by his older brother Johann Christoph Bach , who studied with Pachelbel, but although J.
Bach's early chorales and chorale variations borrow from Pachelbel's music, the style of northern German composers, such as Georg Böhm , Dieterich Buxtehude , and Johann Adam Reincken , played a more important role in the development of Bach's talent.
Pachelbel was the last great composer of the Nuremberg tradition and the last important southern German composer.
Pachelbel's influence was mostly limited to his pupils, most notably Johann Christoph Bach, Johann Heinrich Buttstett , Andreas Nicolaus Vetter , and two of Pachelbel's sons, Wilhelm Hieronymus and Charles Theodore.
The latter became one of the first European composers to take up residence in the American colonies and so Pachelbel influenced, although indirectly and only to a certain degree, the American church music of the era.
As the Baroque style went out of fashion during the 18th century, the majority of Baroque and pre-Baroque composers were virtually forgotten.
Local organists in Nuremberg and Erfurt knew Pachelbel's music and occasionally performed it, but the public and the majority of composers and performers did not pay much attention to Pachelbel and his contemporaries.
In the first half of the 19th century, some organ works by Pachelbel were published and several musicologists started considering him an important composer, particularly Philipp Spitta , who was one of the first researchers to trace Pachelbel's role in the development of Baroque keyboard music.
Much of Pachelbel's work was published in the early 20th century in the Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich series, but it was not until the rise of interest in early Baroque music in the middle of the 20th century and the advent of historically-informed performance practice and associated research that Pachelbel's works began to be studied extensively and again performed more frequently.
Pachelbel's Canon , a piece of chamber music scored for three violins and basso continuo and originally paired with a gigue in the same key , experienced a surge in popularity during the s.
Its visibility was increased by its choice as the theme music for the film Ordinary People in During his lifetime, Pachelbel was best known as an organ composer.
He wrote more than two hundred pieces for the instrument, both liturgical and secular, and explored most of the genres that existed at the time.
Pachelbel was also a prolific vocal music composer: around a hundred of such works survive, including some 40 large-scale works.
Only a few chamber music pieces by Pachelbel exist, although he might have composed many more, particularly while serving as court musician in Eisenach and Stuttgart.
Several principal sources exist for Pachelbel's music, although none of them as important as, for example, the Oldham manuscript is for Louis Couperin.
The Neumeister Collection and the so-called Weimar tablature of provide valuable information about Pachelbel's school, although they do not contain any pieces that can be confidently ascribed to him.
Currently, there is no standard numbering system for Pachelbel's works. Several catalogues are used, by Antoine Bouchard POP numbers, organ works only , Jean M.
Perreault P numbers, currently the most complete catalogue; organized alphabetically , Hideo Tsukamoto T numbers, L for lost works; organized thematically and Kathryn Jane Welter PC numbers.
Much of Pachelbel's liturgical organ music, particularly the chorale preludes , is relatively simple and written for manuals only: no pedal is required.
This is partly due to Lutheran religious practice where congregants sang the chorales. Household instruments like virginals or clavichords accompanied the singing, so Pachelbel and many of his contemporaries made music playable using these instruments.
The quality of the organs Pachelbel used also played a role: south German instruments were not, as a rule, as complex and as versatile as the north German ones, and Pachelbel's organs must have only had around 15 to 25 stops on two manuals compare to Buxtehude 's Marienkirche instrument with 52 stops, 15 of them in the pedal.
Finally, neither the Nuremberg nor the southern German organ tradition endorsed extensive use of pedals seen in the works by composers of the northern German school.
Chorale preludes constitute almost half of Pachelbel's surviving organ works, in part because of his Erfurt job duties which required him to compose chorale preludes on a regular basis.
The models Pachelbel used most frequently are the three-part cantus firmus setting, the chorale fugue and, most importantly, a model he invented which combined the two types.
This latter type begins with a brief chorale fugue that is followed by a three- or four-part cantus firmus setting. Chorale phrases are treated one at a time, in the order in which they occur; frequently, the accompanying voices anticipate the next phrase by using bits of the melody in imitative counterpoint.
An example from Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist :. The piece begins with a chorale fugue not shown here that turns into a four-part chorale setting which starts at bar The slow-moving chorale the cantus firmus , i.
The lower voices anticipate the shape of the second phrase of the chorale in an imitative fashion notice the distinctive pattern of two repeated notes.
Pachelbel wrote numerous chorales using this model "Auf meinen lieben Gott", "Ach wie elend ist unsre Zeit", "Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist", etc.
A distinctive feature of almost all of Pachelbel's chorale preludes is his treatment of the melody: the cantus firmus features virtually no figuration or ornamentation of any kind, always presented in the plainest possible way in one of the outer voices.
Pachelbel's knowledge of both ancient and contemporary chorale techniques is reflected in Acht Choräle zum Praeambulieren , a collection of eight chorales he published in It included, among other types, several chorales written using outdated models.
Of these, "Nun lob, mein Seel, den Herren" is based on the hymn by Johann Gramann , a paraphrase of Psalm ; it is one of the very few Pachelbel chorales with cantus firmus in the tenor.
Finally, "Jesus Christus, unser Heiland der von uns" is a typical bicinium chorale with one of the hands playing the unadorned chorale while the other provides constant fast-paced accompaniment written mostly in sixteenth notes.
Pachelbel wrote more than one hundred fugues on free themes. These fall into two categories: some 30 free fugues and around 90 of the so-called Magnificat Fugues.
His fugues are usually based on non-thematic material, and are shorter than the later model of which those of J.
Bach are a prime example. The contrapuntal devices of stretto, diminution and inversion are very rarely employed in any of them.
Nevertheless, Pachelbel's fugues display a tendency towards a more unified, subject-dependent structure which was to become the key element of late Baroque fugues.
Given the number of fugues he composed and the extraordinary variety of subjects he used, Pachelbel is regarded as one of the key composers in the evolution of the form.
The Magnificat Fugues were all composed during Pachelbel's final years in Nuremberg. The singing of the Magnificat at Vespers was usually accompanied by the organist, and earlier composers provided examples of Magnificat settings for organ, based on themes from the chant.
Pachelbel's fugues, however, are almost all based on free themes and it is not yet understood exactly where they fit during the service. It is possible that they served to help singers establish pitch , or simply act as introductory pieces played before the beginning of the service.
There are 95 pieces extant, covering all eight church modes : 23 in primi toni , 10 in secundi toni , 11 in tertii toni , 8 in quarti toni , 12 in quinti toni , 10 in sexti toni , 8 in septimi toni and 13 in octavi toni.
Although a few two- and four-voice works are present, most employ three voices sometimes expanding to four-voice polyphony for a bar or two.
With the exception of the three double fugues primi toni No. Although most of them are brief, the subjects are extremely varied see Example 1. Frequently some form of note repetition is used to emphasize a rhythmic rather than melodic contour.
Minor alterations to the subject between the entries are observed in some of the fugues, and simple countersubjects occur several times. The double fugues exhibit a typical three-section structure: fugue on subject 1, fugue on subject 2, and the counterpoint with simultaneous use of both subjects.
Most of Pachelbel's free fugues are in three or four voices, with the notable exception of two bicinia pieces. Pachelbel frequently used repercussion subjects of different kinds, with note repetition sometimes extended to span a whole measure such as in the subject of a G minor fugue, see illustration.
Some of the fugues employ textures more suited for the harpsichord , particularly those with broken chord figuration. The three ricercars Pachelbel composed, that are more akin to his fugues than to ricercars by Frescobaldi or Froberger, are perhaps more technically interesting.
In the original sources, all three use white notation and are marked alla breve. The polythematic C minor ricercar is the most popular and frequently performed and recorded.
It is built on two contrasting themes a slow chromatic pattern and a lively simplistic motif that appear in their normal and inverted forms and concludes with both themes appearing simultaneously.
The F-sharp minor ricercar uses the same concept and is slightly more interesting musically: the key of F-sharp minor requires a more flexible tuning than the standard meantone temperament of the Baroque era and was therefore rarely used by contemporary composers.
This means that Pachelbel may have used his own tuning system, of which little is known. Ricercare in C major is mostly in three voices and employing the same kind of writing with consecutive thirds as seen in Pachelbel's toccatas see below.
Pachelbel's use of repercussion subjects and extensive repeated note passages may be regarded as another characteristic feature of his organ pieces.
Extreme examples of note repetition in the subject are found in magnificat fugues: quarti toni No. Pachelbel's apparent affinity for variation form is evident from his organ works that explore the genre: chaconnes , chorale variations and several sets of arias with variations.
The six chaconnes, together with Buxtehude's ostinato organ works, represent a shift from the older chaconne style: they completely abandon the dance idiom, introduce contrapuntal density, employ miscellaneous chorale improvisation techniques, and, most importantly, give the bass line much thematic significance for the development of the piece.
Pachelbel's chaconnes are distinctly south German in style; the duple meter C major chaconne possibly an early work is reminiscent of Kerll's D minor passacaglia.
The remaining five works are all in triple meter and display a wide variety of moods and techniques, concentrating on melodic content as opposed to the emphasis on harmonic complexity and virtuosity in Buxtehude's chaconnes.
The ostinato bass is not necessarily repeated unaltered throughout the piece and is sometimes subjected to minor alterations and ornamentation.
The D major, D minor and F minor chaconnes are among Pachelbel's most well-known organ pieces, and the latter is often cited as his best organ work.
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